Publications du CERALE et publications associées


Dans cette rubrique, les ouvrages publiés par le CERALE et ceux dont les auteurs sont associés au CERALE.



Rapport France & Colombie 2020

Cette étude conduite conjointement avec la Universidad de Los Andes avec la collaboration du Centre de Développement de l’OCDE explore la question de l’internationalisation des PME et de ses effets sur le développement des territoires. Sous le prisme des regards croisés elle prend en compte des PME colombiennes et françaises.


Voir le rapport ici: Rapport France & Colombie 2020


Estrategias multicadena y resiliencia. Casos de exportación exitosos en la crisis argentina de inicios de siglo, por J. Walter, J. Ruffier y H. Manson

CERALE tiene el gusto de anunciar la publicación del artículo «Estrategias multicadena y resiliencia. Casos de exportación exitosos en la crisis argentina de inicios de siglo» de J. Walter, J. Ruffier y H. Manson en Cuadernos del CENDES, año 35, n°99, sep.-dic. de 2018, pág. 97-129, ed. por el Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo de la Universidad Central de Venezuela. Dicho artículo se apoya en la comunicación presentada en el Coloquio CERALE-UniAndes 2018.

CERALE est heureux d’annoncer la parution de l’article «Estrategias multicadena y resiliencia. Casos de exportación exitosos en la crisis argentina de inicios de siglo» de J. Walter, J. Ruffier et H. Manson in Cuadernos del CENDES, año 35, n°99, sep.-déc. de 2018, pag. 97-129, ed. par le Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo de la Universidad Central de Venezuela. L’article s’appuie sur la communication présentée au Colloque CERALE-UniAndes 2018.

PME sud-européennes au Brésil, une étude CERALE

Cette étude aborde les barrières à l’international des PME françaises, espagnoles, italiennes et portugaises au Brésil.


Adapting a Lean Production Program to National Institutions in Latin America: Danone in Argentina and Brazil

This article argues that national institutions identified in the varieties of capitalism approach have a significant impact on the degree of fidelity and extensiveness of best practices adapted by geocentric multinational corporations in host countries in emerging markets. To illustrate this argument it shows how differences in national institutions between Brazil and Argentina caused Danone to adapt a lean production in radically different ways in each of these countries.

Both of the programs implemented had low degrees of fidelity and extensiveness to the original best practice.

This article contends that in Argentina strong labor laws and the ability of unions to negotiate significant salary increases combined with a desire of workers to have individual pride in their jobs caused Danone to empower them individually instead of creating teams as foreseen in this company’s original lean production program. In Brazil the weakness of unions combined with labor laws that promote employee turnover and the desire of workers to improve their salaries caused this company neither to empower workers nor create teams. Instead, it motivated workers by providing them the previously unavailable opportunity to become a manager.

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Latin American SMEs, and training programmes for their internationalisation

Latin American SMEs, and training programmes for their internationalisation

This study aims to trace, through documented initiatives in nine countries of the region, an overview of university and professional training focused on internationalisation of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Emphasis is placed on the importance of strengthening the university-company links and of expanding training contents in such a way that they lead entrepreneurs to formulate their strategies beyond their borders. It also highlights the insufficient knowledge of Europe by Latin American economic agents and suggests some ways to correct this.

Cooperation between Latin American, Caribbean and European SMEs is a substantial issue on the bi-regional agenda, as defined by the EU-LAC Foundation. This is attested by the work carried out at the macro and meso level by the EU-LAC Foundation, with the projects on Competitiveness Poles and Industrial Maps of Latin America, and at the micro level by CERALE – ESCP Europe with the support of the Institute of the Americas (IdA) and of the EU-LAC Foundation.  Education is also considered as a privileged space for dialogue between the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean, as it is a major determinant of development and plays a decisive role in socio-economic mobility and employability of individuals. These issues, in fact, are among the main concerns of European, Latin American and Caribbean governments.

In a context of economic slowdown, in which Latin American and Caribbean countries face difficulties to reduce poverty, diversify their economies, add value to their production of goods and services and increase their participation in world trade, the education and training of youth and adults becomes even more urgent.

These two dimensions, internationalisation of SMEs and training of economic agents, are reflected in the present study.

The underlying research was articulated in two phases, both focused on internationalisation of SMEs. The first focused on the analysis of the process of internationalisation of Latin American SMEs, emphasising the barriers they have to overcome to go beyond the domestic market and the perception that their leaders have of the European market. This research was conducted in 2015-2016 and led to the publication titled The Internationalisation of Latin American SMEs and their projection in Europe, available in Spanish and English ( SMEs-Latin-American-and-projection-in-Europe).

The analysis of 225 experiences of internationalisation highlighted how the training and the intensity of the international experience of the leader affect the strategic vision and dynamics of internationalisation of their companies, without prejudice to other factors – reflected in numerous studies carried out by organisms, agencies and academic centres- that highlight the existing relationship between innovation, competitiveness and internationalisation.

This study presents the current status of the main training programmes in the nine Latin American countries under study in phase 1 (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay) and whose objective is to the training of entrepreneurs, leaders of SMEs and advanced students to operate in the international market.

It is an exploratory study. Considering the breadth of geographic coverage, it limits itself to analysing, in its broad lines, the most outstanding initiatives in terms of training for the internationalisation of leaders and future leaders, to identify emerging trends and to elaborate recommendations aimed at strengthening the provision for the internationalisation of entrepreneurs and future entrepreneurs

The internationalisation of SMEs is now a concern of all the governments of the region: to a large extent, the ability of Latin American economies to overcome their dependence on primary exports, diversify their export profile and participate successfully in regional and global value chains will depend on it.

This study also aims to suggest ways to bring Latin American SMEs closer to the EU market and allow them to strengthen ties with their European counterparts, thus enriching the bi-regional relationship.




Directed by Florence Pinot de Villechenon, CERALE-ESCP Europe and Institut des Amériques.

Lautaro Vinsennau, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina and Uruguay)

Edson Luiz Riccio, University of São Paulo, and Jacir Favretto (Brazil)

Soledad Etchebarne, Isabel Torres and Fernanda Beckdorf, University of Chile (Chile)

Luz Marina Ferro Cortés, María Camila Cortés Moreno and Luisa Díaz Botero, Universidad de los Andes (Colombia)

Carlos Ortíz Vargas, INCAE Business School (Costa Rica)

Wilson Araque, Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Ecuador Campus, Andrés Arguello and Germán Granda (Ecuador)

Humberto López Rizzo, Université Paris 1 (Mexico)

Andrea Alexandra Vilchez Espejo, University del Pacífico (Peru)



Established in 1819, ESCP Europe is the world’s oldest business school and has educated generations of leaders and entrepreneurs.

With its five urban campuses in Paris, London, Berlin, Madrid, and Torino, ESCP Europe’s true European Identity enables the provision of a unique style of cross-cultural business education and a Global Perspective on international management issues.

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